Where were you on July 21, 2010? If you were working for a bank, or in compliance for a publicly traded company, you know the world got much more complex on that date. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the Dodd-Frank Act) was signed into law, all 2,315 pages of it. Four years later, it makes sense to ask the status of the various regulations coming out of the Act, especially in one of the most complex areas, compensation.
There were six items in the Dodd-Frank Act that specifically focused on compensation. Of these six, five applied to all public companies; only one was focused specifically on financial institutions—incentive compensation. Four years later, only two of these six have been implemented. While this speaks to the general level of gridlock in Washington, D.C., at our regulatory bodies, it is important to understand what has been implemented, what is coming and how it impacts your bank.
If you are a publicly traded bank, say-on-pay has been with you for four years and has had a very direct impact on executive compensation. This fall, we may get final regulations on the pay ratio disclosure, which requires public companies to report the ratio of CEO pay to the median pay of all other employees. This could go into effect in 2015, which could impact proxy statements in 2016. Also, we may see proposed regulations on clawbacks this fall.
Most bankers are awaiting final regulations on incentive compensation arrangements; a regulatory item that has been in a proposed state for more than three years. However, there is related final guidance on a similar subject—Sound Incentive Compensation Policies. Although this joint regulatory guidance did not come out of the Dodd-Frank Act, it is in effect today and applies to all banks and thrifts, regardless of whether they are public or private and regardless of size.
|951(a)||Shareholder Vote on Executive Compensation||Say-on-Pay||All public companies||Effective, January 2011|
|951(b)||Shareholder Vote on Golden Parachute Compensation||Say-on-Golden-Parachutes||All public companies||Effective, January 2011|
|953(a)||Pay Versus Performance Disclosure||—||All public companies||Not proposed|
|953(b)||Pay Ratio Disclosure||CEO Pay Ratio||All public companies||Proposed, September 2013|
|954||Recovery of Erroneous Awarded Compensation||Clawbacks||All public companies||Not proposed|
|956||Enhanced Compensation Reporting Structure||Incentive Compensation Arrangements||All banks and thrifts >$1 billion in assets||Proposed,
Say on Pay
In the 2014 proxy season, there were five banks who failed to receive majority shareholder support for their executive pay plans, or say-on-pay. Collectively in the 2012 and 2013 proxy seasons, there were a combined five banks that failed. The frequency of failed say-on-pay votes has increased.
What four years of say-on-pay has taught us is that you don’t want to fail your say-on-pay vote, and compensation that is extraordinarily high will get highly scrutinized. Plus, institutional investors have created their own governance groups and fighting a failed say-on-pay vote is expensive.
If your firm has a less than 70 percent positive vote for say-on-pay you have some homework to do for the next year. Also, having a healthy dialogue with your institutional investors has never been as important as now.
There have been no proposed regulations on clawbacks to date. This section would require that a company recover compensation that should not have been paid because of a restatement of earnings. This applies to current and former executive officers for the preceding three years after the restatement of earnings.
This absence of a proposal is striking given this is already a rule for the chief executive officer and chief financial officer as a result of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
Incentive Compensation Arrangements
Section 956 is the one area which specifically focuses on financial institutions. This provision applies to all banks greater than $1 billion in assets—public or private as well as credit unions over a certain size, all farm credit agencies and broker dealers.
The essence of the provision requires reporting to a firm’s primary federal regulator within 90 days of the end of the fiscal year. What has to be reported relates to a firm’s incentive compensation arrangements, primarily a description of all incentive compensation plans (including equity and post-retirement benefits), governance structures in place to ensure excessive compensation is not paid, and changes in incentive compensation from the previous year.
In addition for firms with assets greater than $50 billion, 50 percent of all incentive compensation has to be paid over a three year period.
Interestingly, Section 956 was proposed in April, 2011 it still has not been finalized more than three years later.
Still, banks should get prepared. All banks covered under the rule should have a formal review process of incentive compensation: Identify covered employees, review the plan designs and how compensation is paid over time; and make sure you have proper internal risk controls in place. The compensation committee of the board should oversee this review.
In the end, much of Dodd-Frank has not been finalized, but you can help prepare now by educating yourself about what is coming down the pike.