To quote Shakespeare, “What’s past is prologue.” By looking back at Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) actions in 2015 and beyond, I believe it provides a good template for what we can expect for insurance in 2016. For purposes of this article, there are two areas we will look at: FDIC settlements and regulators’ civil money penalties (CMPs).
The Impact of the Wave of Failed Banks
Here are the trends with regards to the impact that failed banks have had on FDIC suits and then on FDIC settlements:
|Year||Failed Banks||# of FDIC Suits||# of FDIC Settlements||Settlement $ (total)|
We see an interesting chain reaction that begins with failed banks. Since 2008, there have been 515 total failed banks, with a peak of 157 in 2010. We see a similar trend with the number of FDIC suits against banks, albeit with a three-year lag, which is consistent with the statute of limitations. This trend continues with FDIC settlements, which generally have a two-year delay following the lawsuit. For example, a bank that failed in 2010 will typically be sued in 2013 and settle in 2015. And a vast majority of those settlements are represented as directors and officers’ (D&O) claims payments associated with the D&O insurance policy that existed at the time the bank failed.
A majority of the claims are being paid by the same insurance carriers that currently represent today’s community and regional banks. This implies that healthy banks will continue to pay for the sins of their ancestors. The good news is that it is fair to say that settlements against bank directors and officers peaked in 2015. So while we can expect slightly higher D&O rates at least until the time when these claims amortize off the carrier’s books, fewer settlements in 2016 should begin to put downward pressure on prices for D&O insurance.
The best way to mitigate against these increases is to make sure your bank is seen for its strengths. We recommend hosting an underwriting meeting/call approximately six weeks prior to the renewal, which should include both the incumbent D&O underwriter and one or two of the alternative underwriters who typically will offer terms for similar banks.
FDIC Civil Money Penalties (CMP)
Since 1996, the FDIC has forbidden banks from insuring against CMP payments for their officers and directors. However, we regularly saw civil money penalty endorsements on D&O policies up until 2013. On October 10th of 2013, the FDIC sent out the letter FIL-47-2013 which explicitly reinforced that civil money penalties (CMPs) can neither be indemnified by the banking institution or covered under the bank’s D&O policy. Once that letter came out, most insurance carriers refused to offer the CMP endorsement(s) previously provided, thus creating a significant gap in coverage for all bank directors and officers.
Since then, we have seen several new insurance products created to address this gap and we continue to get inquiries about them. Remember, since the bank cannot cover the CMP, the individual must complete the application and pay for the coverage themselves. And it will be the individual’s name as the only named insured listed on the policy.
Here is the 2014 vs. 2015 data with regards to the CMP trends against individual D&Os:
- The average CMP amount increased from $67,646 to $74,980
- The median CMP amount increased from $15,000 to $50,000
- The maximum individual CMP in 2014 was $500,000 and in 2015, $545,000
- In the past two years, approximately 29 percent of CMPs were for failed institutions
|CMP Fine Size||2014||2015|
|$51K – $100K||10%||12%|
|$101K – $150K||10%||12%|
|$151K – $250K||2%||8%|
Since a vast majority of banks cited are solvent, it behooves D&Os of even the healthiest institutions to consider this coverage. Factors that go into eligibility are the regulatory status of the bank and any past regulatory history of the individuals. So if you are interested, it is better to inquire prior to any type of regulatory restriction, although that would not disqualify you for the coverage.